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Category: Set Theory

All the Same Opposites

All the Same Opposites

Editor's note: see this appendix for supporting proofs. Fields are among the most convenient algebraic structures, preserving much of the arithmetic we know and love from familiar fields like the rationals and the real numbers . Now, it is unnecessary that a set possess infinitely many elements to possibly constitute a field (under the right…

The Red-Headed Step-Distributions

The Red-Headed Step-Distributions

Almost every textbook in probability or statistics will speak of classifying distributions into two different camps: discrete (singular in some older textbooks) and continuous. Discrete distributions have either a finite or a countable sample space (also known as a set of Lebesgue measure 0), such as the Poisson or binomial distribution, or simply rolling a…

A Note on Russell’s Paradox

A Note on Russell’s Paradox

Topics in mathematics very frequently rely on set theory (I am hard-pressed to quickly think of one that doesn't). Set theory itself is a very abstract area of study. Even so, mathematicians built it on axioms (self-evident truths taken as fundamental starting points), and, of course, debate continues to this day as to which axioms…

Concatenation as an Operation

Concatenation as an Operation

Mathematics is like any activity, sport, or skill: it must be honed and practiced. With that in mind, I have been bolstering up my abilities in algebra with a fantastic book A Book of Abstract Algebra, by Charles C. Pinter.. As I go through the chapters, I will be posting and discussing selected relevant exercises that…

The Rigor of Fuzzy Sets

The Rigor of Fuzzy Sets

Perhaps "fuzzy set theory", "fuzzy arithmetic", and "fuzzy rules" could have been named something a bit less mock-worthy. The word "fuzzy" has English synonyms "blurred", "unfocused", and the worst "ill-defined". However, fuzzy set theory is anything but fuzzy. Maybe cuddly and fun, but certainly not ill-defined. We'll take a look in this post at what…