﻿
Vertical Dependency in Sequences of Categorical Random Variables

# Vertical Dependency in Sequences of Categorical Random Variables

## Sequentially Dependent Random Variables

While FK dependence yielded some interesting results, a more realistic type of dependence is sequential dependence, where the outcome of a categorical random variable depends with coefficient δ on the outcome of the variable immediately preceeding it in the sequence. Put formally, if we let $\mathcal{F}_{n} = \{\epsilon_{1},\ldots,\epsilon_{n-1}\}$, then $P(\epsilon_{n}|\epsilon_{1},\ldots,\epsilon_{n-1}) = P(\epsilon_{n}|\epsilon_{n-1}) \neq P(\epsilon_{n})$. That is, $\epsilon_{n}$ only has direct dependence on the previous variable $\epsilon_{n-1}$. We keep the same weighting as for FK-dependence. That is,

$$\begin{array}{lr}P(\epsilon_{n} = j | \epsilon_{n-1} = j) = p_{j}^{+} = p_{j} + \delta(1-p_{j}),&\\ P(\epsilon_{n} = j | \epsilon_{n-1} = i) = p_{j}^{-} = p_{j}-\delta p_{j}, &\:\: j = 1,\ldots,K;\:\:i \neq j\end{array}$$ As a comparison, for FK dependence, $P(\epsilon_{n}|\epsilon_{1},\ldots,\epsilon_{n-1}) = P(\epsilon_{n}|\epsilon_{1}) \neq P(\epsilon_{n})$. That is, $\epsilon_{n}$ only has direct dependence on $\epsilon_{1}$, and

$$\begin{array}{lr}P(\epsilon_{n} = j | \epsilon_{1} = j) = p_{j}^{+} = p_{j} + \delta(1-p_{j}),&\\ P(\epsilon_{n} = j | \epsilon_{1} = i) = p_{j}^{-} = p_{j}-\delta p_{j},&\:\:j = 1,\ldots,K;\:\: i \neq j\end{array}$$ Let $\epsilon = (\epsilon_{1},\ldots,\epsilon_{n})$ be a sequence of categorical random variables of length n (either independent or dependent) where the number of categories for all $\epsilon_{i}$ is K. Denote $\Omega_{n}^{K}$ as the sample space of this random sequence. For example,

$$\Omega_{3}^{3} = \{(1,1,1), (1,1,2), (1,1,3), (1,2,1), (1,2,2),\ldots,(3,3,1),(3,3,2),(3,3,3)\}$$

Dependency structures like FK-dependence and sequential dependence change the probability of a sequence $\epsilon$ of length n taking a particular $\omega = (\omega_{1},\ldots,\omega_{n}) \in \Omega_{n}^{K}$. The probability of a particular $\omega \in \Omega_{n}^{K}$ is given by the dependency structure. For example, if the variables are independent, $P((1,2,1)) = p_{1}^{2}p_{2}$. Under FK-dependence, $P((1,2,1)) = p_{1}p_{2}^{-}p_{1}^{+}$, and under sequential dependence, $P((1,2,1)) = p_{1}p_{2}^{-}p_{1}^{-}$. See Figures 2 and 3 for a comparison of the probability mass flows of sequential dependence and FK dependence. Sequentially dependent sequences of categorical random variables remain identically distributed but dependent, just like FK-dependent sequences. That is,

Lemma 1

Let $\epsilon = (\epsilon_{1},\ldots,\epsilon_{n})$ be a sequentially dependent categorical sequence of length n with K categories. Then

$$P(\epsilon_{j} = i) = p_{i}; \qquad i = 1,\ldots,K;\:\:j = 1,\ldots,n;\:\: n \in \mathbb{N}$$